In the previous installment of this photography basics series, I taught about composition.  In this installment, I'll teach you all about focus and why your photos may not be as sharp as you'd like them to be.

This morning, I got an email from one of the students in my online beginner photography class who said she spent $2,000 on an expensive camera and another $1,500 on a high-end lens.  Still, her pictures don't look as sharp as she would like them to, and wondered why that is.  I have to admit that I get this type of question SOO OFTEN that I dedicated an entire WEEK of training in my beginner class to teaching about how to get crystal clear and sharp photos.

It is not uncommon for photographers to think that something must be wrong with their equipment if the photos don't come out sharp, but most of the time I find that the reason is simply a product of mistakes the photographer makes when shooting.  You can avoid those issues by understanding how to properly focus your camera.

The #1 focusing mistake of beginning photographers

The #1 mistake I see from beginning photographers in terms of getting clear pictures, is that they aren't being precise with their focus.  I often ask students where they are focusing, and I get answers like, “On the model's face.”  The fact of the matter is that “the face” is far too large of an area to focus on for intimate portraits.  Allow me to explain why…

Suppose you're taking a portrait of someone.  Now that you've learned how to use shallow depth-of-field from the second article in this series, you want to use it all the time in your portraits to get a creamy background behind the subject.  This means you're usually shooting your portraits at f/2.8 or a similar low aperture.  Suppose, also, that you're using a 100mm lens and standing 7 feet (2.1 meters) from the subject.  Did you know that, with these settings, that only 1.4 inches (3.5 centimeters) of the photo sharp?  That means that, if you focus on the person's cheek, their eyes and nose will be partially blurry.

So if you want your photos to come out crystal clear and sharp, you need to focus PRECISELY, and make sure you have enough depth-of-field to make the subject come out sharp.  When shooting portraits, you will almost always focus on the person's eye, since that is where the viewer of the photo will look first.  For landscape photographers, check out this article on where to focus in landscape photography.

How to focus on one spot

When you were shooting in automatic mode on your camera, the camera would automatically find the subject and focus for you.  Now that you're shooting manually, it's time to take control of your focus as well.

Your camera ALWAYS focuses on one specific spot in the scene.  It is physically impossible for a lens to focus on two spots at once.  When you look through your viewfinder, you see a bunch of dots (Canon) or small boxes (Nikon).  Those markings show you where in the frame the camera is focusing.  This spot generally blinks red when the camera sets focus.

In the picture below, I chose to focus on the ant on the flower, since that is where I wanted people to look.  To do this, I set the camera to spot focus and used the four-way selector on the back of my DSLR to move the focus point onto the ant.

Notice the red illuminated focus point right on the ant? That's where I'm setting the focus for this shot.

Sometimes, the spot in the picture where you want to focus will not have a focus point available.  This is especially true on entry-level Canon Rebel or Nikon D3200 DSLRs, which do not have many focus points.  If you find that this is the case, check out this article on focusing and recomposing.

Focus Selections

I hope I didn't confuse you earlier when I said that the camera can ONLY focus on one specific spot in the photo.  There are ways that you can activate multiple focus points at once, but in doing so, the camera is just choosing the best of both worlds and compromising between the focus selections to set the focus in the middle somewhere.

99% of the time when I'm out shooting I use spot focus, which allows me to move around the focus point in the viewfinder.  My thumb has become adept at constantly moving around the focus point using the four-way selector on the back of the camera as I compose a shot through the viewfinder.  Spot focus is great because you have exact control over where the focus is placed.

However, there are other focus selection options on most DSLR cameras.  Other than spot focus, you have the ability to choose a small group of between 3 and 5 focus points and tell the camera to choose the best of those points, or you could set your camera to determine which focus point to use all on its own.  I never let the camera take control of focus–it's a recipe for blurry pictures.  When I'm shooting sports or fast-moving wildlife, I'll sometimes set the camera to use any of the center area focus points and choose the best one, because the action happens faster than I can move the focus point.

Although there are certainly situations to use other focus selections, I would encourage you to use spot focus and get used to constantly moving around the focus point around the frame as you shoot for the next few months.

Focus Modes

Aside from selecting which focus point(s) the camera is using, you also need to set which type of autofocus the camera will use.  For most uses, you'll want to leave your camera on “AF-S” (Nikon) or “One Shot” (Canon).  This means that the camera will acquire focus when you press half-way down on the shutter button, and then take the picture when you finish pressing all the way down on the shutter button.

The other main option is continuous focus (displayed on the camera as “AF-C” for Nikon cameras and “AI Servo” for Canon cameras).  This mode is used when the subject is moving.  Suppose you're shooting a soccer player running toward you.  If you use one shot, then the camera focuses when you press half way down on the shutter, and by the time you finish pressing all the way down, the camera takes the picture.  In that split second, the athlete will have moved, so the picture will not turn out sharp.  Continuous focus (AF-C or AI SERVO) means that the camera continues to find focus all the way up to the instant that you snap the picture.

So why wouldn't you want to use continuous focus all the time?  Because it's slightly less precise than one shot.  So here's the rule… use one shot (“AF-S” on Nikon, and “One Shot” on Canon) for all shots where the subject is reasonably still like landscapes or most portraits.  Use continuous focus (“AF-C” on Nikon, and “AI Servo” on Canon) for all fast-moving shots.

Note: Canon users will also see the option for “AI Focus” when choosing a focus mode.  There is a specific use for this, but honestly it's just outdated technology.  I have tried it extensively even in the best case scenarios for this focus mode and have always achieved better results with AI Servo.

You have just learned a LOT of the basics of how your camera works, but there is much more to learn.  If you want more information like this in video format that you can watch at your own pace, you should really check out my beginner online photography class.  It's only $15 for 22 videos (many filmed on-location) with all the camera settings for each picture, videos of exactly how to put a composition together, and training on getting tack sharp photos.

Sign Up for My Online Photo Class


  1. The writer here simply ignored other leading camera brand users such as Sony users, don’t know why!?

    Thanks for the Article though 🙂

  2. I agree and thought the same. But most do and should rethink this because Sony is a competitor of the other two!

  3. Interesting! My photos are NEVER as sharp as I’d like them and I always blamed the glass. You hear about the terror of kit glass and all that and so maybe *I’m* the issue. Thanks for the tips and your podcast is quickly becoming my favorite.

  4. Great article, thank you! In my experience, the single biggest factor in achieving razor sharp focus is knowing your lens’ sweet spot. Many of my blurry pictures are a direct result of using excessively large apertures. For best results (and this will depend on your specific lens), it is absolutely essential to stop down the aperture, even when using fast lenses. This is especially true when shooting portraits.

    1. If you change the aperture from say 4 to 8 to make the photo sharper then it’s also darker which means you have to up the ISO which means lessening the quality of the photo. How do you still keep it sharp? I think I’m having problems using ISO, aperture and shutter speed together. If I put my shutter at like 1/60 the photo will be light enough, but blurry. Grr it’s so frustrating!

      1. Be careful with your shutter speed! For most people, 1/60 will result in some camera shake (unless you are on a tripod). There is a guideline that says your shutter speed should stay above 1/focal length. So if you are using an 85mm lens, keep the shutter speed over 1/80; for a 200mm lens, keep it over 1/200. Heavier equipment, longer lenses, and muscle fatigue can all lead to camera shake, so find what works best for you. Personally, I keep my shutter speed over 1/100 because from experience I know I have trouble keeping it steady at slower speeds. Some people have very steady hands and can get away with slower shutter speeds.

        Another thing that will help is your posture while holding the camera. Plant your feet slightly apart and bring your elbows in tight to your body so that they are stable. Keep one hand under the camera as a base, and the other on the side to press the shutter button. For really slow shutter speeds, take a breath in, hold it for a second, and press the shutter.

        In order to get the same exposure, set your shutter speed, then adjust your ISO and aperture. There is always a trade-off (this is called the “exposure triangle”). If you adjust one of these three elements, you will have to adjust one or both of the other two in order to get the same exposure. So if you’re shooting at 1/60, with your aperture at f/4 and ISO at 200 and you want to increase the shutter speed to 1/100 (without changing the exposure/brightness), you will have to either lower your aperture, raise your ISO, or do a little of both. In this example, you can get the same exposure by moving your ISO to 320 (shutter speed 1/100 and aperture f/4). In extreme cases, this may mean that you will have to raise your ISO to a point that you see graininess in the image, but sometimes that is a trade-off that is necessary.

  5. Thank you so much for the info! I have an environmental background and will be going on a course documenting marine mammals, but I needed to be equipped with photography basics!.

    Thanks again.

  6. As a participant in Jim’s on line courses, I have learned to focus on the eyes.

  7. Absolutely the best explanation ever. I’ve taken photography classes this entire school year in h.s, 9th grade. . And you have explained more, in an understanding fashion w/I 20 minutes, than my teacher had all school year! Thanks so much!

  8. Thanks…great tutorial ……simple explanation without all the over the top tech jargon …looking forward to following the advice. Lets face it, the reason we all bought DSLR cameras was to move on from point and shoot…… 🙂

  9. I use a Sony camera nd I don’t get sharp images as expected…my images looks sharp on d camera but when it’s viewed on a pc,it’s blur…

  10. If you want SONY, go buy a TV or Camcorder, That’s what they are good at making. If you are a serious 99% photographer, then is really Nikon or Canon. The others competitors are a waste of money for the most part.

    Pay attention to World Cup, or any main event from sports, to fashion, or whatever it is, you will see that are mostly white lens (canon), and Nikon. 50/50%… Rarely you will see journalist, or professional photog using anything other than this 2 major makers.

    Do search as be wedding photographer and they are either canon or nikon.

    1. Are you kidding?! The times where only Canon and Nikon produced serious cameras are over, or, as a matter of fact – there never were such times!

      Pentax, Leica, Olympus, Sony, Panasonic, Hasselblad – there are many manufacturers that produce outstanding equipment for photography.

      The reason why you see so many photographers at the world cup using CaNikon is because they have the best AF.C (i.e. focus tracking) coupled with full-frame.

      Pentax is building class leading APS-C DSLRs (the K3 bests everything Canon or Nikon produce in this class for pretty much every photographic aspect apart from autofocus and video), Leica cameras wipe the floor with Canon and Nikon for street photography and overall lens quality, Hasselblad and Pentax medium-format cameras are widely used by professional studio photographers.

      Just because you see more Canon and Nikon out in the wild doesn’t mean there aren’t any other serious cameras out there.

    2. Wow with such a comment i take it that you are a real professional photographer who knows everything and anything about photography, I suppose People like Jason Lanier or gary Fong who earn their daily bread from taking photographs havn´t really got a clue what they are doing, why have they changed from Canon and Nikon to Sony? I can tell you why, Sony aren´t scared to make a change in the photography world, the a77, a77 ii, a99, just to mention three aren´t chasing Canon, Nikon and co they have overtaken them, lets just see what Canon brings out this year to try and make the narrow minded Canon minority happy again.

  11. Creativity is much MORE important than gear. If you like Sony, shoot Sony. Don’t feel shamed into buying Canon or Nikon. All three brands have pros and cons. Albert Tom’s comment seems to come from someone who wants to LOOK professional, rather than BE professional. If you enjoy photography, willing to put in a ton of work, and always strive to learn more, you will be on the right track.

  12. Definitely agree with you, Jon! The most important piece of gear is the photographer!

  13. Thank you so much, I learned and understood everything. Written very smoothly!!!

  14. I am a beginner and was wondering how you use a single focus point when shooting a picture with a couple of people in it. I want everyone in the picture to be clear and sharp. Where would I put the one focus point? I don’t want to use auto focus.

    1. I am a beginner I use a canon rebel t3i some times have issues shooting in a room with poor lights, I use a speed light but it makes the objects forehead white. please what do I do?

      1. Kelly, you don’t want to point you speedlight right at the subject. Light looks better when it’s coming from its natural direction, which is the sky. If you can’t use the ceiling, used a near wall to bounce the light. If you can, point the light high on a near wall, and bounce the light back onto the subject. If you getting over exposed photos, reduce your speedlight’s power.

  15. i read most of your article and its such a great help,each time i was wondering how long will it take me to learn all these with my new d750 nikon but with your help,i just made it in a day.
    thank you

  16. OMG Thank you, I have had my DSLR for almost 3 years now and finally I feel confident to shoot in manual mode!! I’m so excited for all my future photos!

  17. Thank you for all your lessons on photography. You are a very good teacher and I’ve enjoyed reading everything!
    Please continue the awesome lessons!

  18. Very very Well written series, instructions are clear and explanations simple and easy to follow, Finally I can start using the manual mode properly 🙂 Thank you!

  19. My Canon 60d doesn’t have lower stop aperture.. It only has till f 5.6
    It doesn’t go any lower than that.

  20. so far I’ve found this free course very informative and easy to understand . Thank you for providing it as a free resource .I am considering paying for your beginner online course , but I do not own a dslr .I use a canon sx50 hs ,how beneficial would your course be for me with basically just a very fancy point and shoot camera ?…

  21. Very impressed – first visit to the site, really nicely written content for new photographers to follow.

    1. I was really looking for some guidance as a beginner in photography which is my hobby. I really impressed the way the things are narrated which is very easy to understand as a beginner. Thank you and all the best.
      Biju Antony

  22. Explained the complex functionalities in verg simple and easy terms. Briliantly done. Impressed by the way it is expressed with examples.

  23. Thank you for an extensive entry into basic photography. I just enrolled in a class that was supposedly entry level, but way over my head. After reading through this, I now feel caught up with the level of the class and empowered to meet my first assignments requirements!

  24. The explanation was very good and simple to understand, Your way of teaching is very impressive with lot of new information.

  25. Oh my. I thank you so much for this lesson. You have already taught this beginner so much. Once I can get to trying some of this out and exploring the camera more I really think Im going to sign up for your class. You did a great job. Ive search all over on the web and by far this is the best. Thank y ou.

  26. Its good to learn basic
    let me try your advise
    I don’t know if you have describe anything on use of flash light, any wway thanks.

  27. I just recently got into photography and this totally makes me more confident. I’m looking forward to getting started.
    Great job and thank you!

  28. This was a very informative website. Everything was very detailed, which was very helpful for me because I’ve been looking for photography classes in the summer since I am a full time college student in a different major during the regular school year. I haven’t found a place that offers classes in the summer time, so I decided to email a few photographers. One emailed me back letting me know that many photographers are self-taught, and they don’t have a certificate or degree. It’s just a matter of motivation and determination. I immediately took the information and ran with it. I start looking to learn from websites and blogs. This is the most helpful, precise one yet. I’m excited to get my camera and use all that I’ve learned. Thank you!

  29. Really helpful, informative and very easy to understand. I have just started reading about photography because I want to buy a new camera and the article was really helpful in understanding the basics. Now, I just can’t wait to buy one good camera and start practicing.

  30. Great teaching method. Very practical information.

    I am a bit confused about when you explained the FOCUS SELECTIONS. On my Fuji X-T1 I have a menu selection called “autofocus setting”. When select it, I then have selections:
    focus area
    release/focus priority
    and others.
    Focus Area selection allows me to choose the “+” of a “+”s screen. I guess this is to select what you call the “spot focus”?
    Release/Focus Priority selection gives 2 further selections: AF-S Priority Selection Release and AF-C Priority Selection Release. Each of these selections gives 2 further selections: Release and Focus.

    Please explain.

    Thank you so much.

    Hung Tran

  31. OMG…this is awesome!! I have looked at the advice from some other photographers but yours is by FAR has been the most helpful to me!! Love the explanations. I am a visual learner but with your examples and text it all works for me. Thank you!! I am by no means a professional very much a beginner. I love taking photographs as a hobby. Slowly building up my confidence with the camera. Right now what makes me anxious, other than learning all the in’s and out’s of the camera, is photographing people. I was asked to do a wedding (only had the camera for about 9 months) and from your advice and basically just clicking away before hand, I was able to get some INCREDIBLE shots. THANK YOU!!
    I have dropped a few hints about getting your course…Christmas is just around the corner and so is my birthday!! 😉

  32. when you say :
    “This means you’re usually shooting your portraits at f/2.8 or a similar low aperture”..

    Shouldn’t that be “high or wide aperture” instead?

    1. You’re right, it would be a wide open aperture. However, this is still a low aperture, as it is a low f-stop

  33. I’m a bit confused by manual spot focusing. If I have the camera set to manual focus, what’s the problem with me just using the focus ring to focus on my subject? Why do I need to use the spot focus with the 4-way selector as well? What would happen if I just used the selector to spot focus and didn’t bother using the focus ring?

  34. Wow! Thank You so Much for the Easy to learn tips for beginners. I have learned more in one day, reading your site, than I have reading hours and hours of other sites….even the ones built toward my specific camera! Thanks again and I will check back often for any more great, informative photography articles. Have a Blessed Day:-)

  35. on the beggning it is best tutorial, I am get in advanced photographer so i will continue the tutorial.

  36. Thanks for the tutorial. This is so far the best site I have seen for the photography tutorials for the beginners and the way the concepts are described and explained, super easy to understand the try it out.

  37. Thanks for ur amazing instructions I followed it and it helped me to much.
    Its very useful for the beginners.
    Thanks a lot,
    So now I am going to have a perfect future decided
    #ItsPHOTOGRAPHY luvd it

  38. Thanks so much for these articles! Extremely helpful to somebody that’s just starting out! Very appreciated!

  39. Thanks a lot for this articles.It is really very helpful for amateur photographers. When I was reading above, I have little doubt. Can you clarify again about “This means you’re usually shooting your portraits at f/2.8 or a similar low aperture. Suppose, also, that you’re using a 100mm lens and standing 7 feet (2.1 meters) from the subject. Did you know that, with these settings, that only 1.4 inches (3.5 centimeters) of the photo sharp? ” How have you reached on 1.4 inches ? How can we apply lens formula in Nikon D5100 camera(1/u + 1/v = 1/f) while taking photographs as we read in high school?
    Waiting for your prompt reply.

  40. Do you ever recommend using manual focus? I’m coming back to photography after about 15 years and just got my first DSLR; I used to shoot film and I’m used to manually focusing everything, but this article seems to assume everyone’s using autofocus. I didn’t realize that was more or less the standard?

  41. Many thanks for the blog series. My skills will be vastly improved.

  42. Best article I have read so far on photography, direct, clear and with a language that is not filled with jargo. I have a Canon EOS D1. I have been trying to figure out how to use it manually – especially in aspect of setting the three different S, A and ISO. I always thought P was the best one to use and never understood why my pictures lacked that .. it wasn’t sharpness, because when zooming I could tell i got them sharp .. but still they felt .. not clear. After reading this about keeping it on AV – i started playing around and saw a difference immediatley. Then I started to look at the settings changing and their relations to each other.. and that opened an aha moment and I went over to M and started fiddeling. I got to go out and walk around and train myself on different objects and situations to get the habit, but really – thank you. ( I switch between a Canon 28-105 ultrasonic lins and an wide angle ) Thank you – and keep writing.. you are good at it!

  43. Thank you so much for the articles! I’ve been using camera for so many years, but its basic settings were always like a mystery for me. I absolutely didn’t understand how to adjust camera settings to make my pictures look the way I wanted. So I just had to take dozens of pictures of a same view to get an acceptable result, and then edit the image in Photoshop which sometimes turned it to a painting rather than a photograph.

  44. Thank you so much for this. I’m looking into getting a camera, as my sister, my dad, my uncle, and recently my other sister are all photographers by hobby, and I have developed an interest. My one hesitation was not knowing whether I would be any good at it, but my main problem, I think, would have been not knowing any of the technical stuff. I know a lot off it is just feeling the shot, and also constant practice, drumming techniques and principles into your head until it becomes instinct, but there is also a big technical aspect to it, and before this, I had absolutely no clue whatsoever. I knew terms like ISO and Aperture and Manual Focus, but I didn’t really understand them. Thank you again, because you’ve given me the little education and confidence I needed to really get started.

  45. Great article. I Have never taken a photography class. Your explanation is wonderful.

  46. Very helpful. Just bought a Sony a6000 a few weeks ago. Have been taking decent pictures with built in edits and automatic mode but this article was very informative about the information I was looking for!

  47. Thank you shoo much.
    It is helping me a lot to improve my photography.
    So many things, I never thought of, but now I do.

  48. I’m very grateful for this article. People like you are rare. Thanks again.

  49. There is a phenomenal professional photographer in my area and he’s a Sony shop. Likewise one of my favorite amateur enthusiasts shoots with a Fuji. As someone who champions going against the grain/status quo (screw Canon!!!), I ended up with Nikon equipment. Cameras are like cars, just because you own a Mercedes doesn’t mean you know shit about apexing your turns…

  50. Awesome info!! I really wanna learn how to use my camera properly and take great photos! Can’t wait to start!

  51. But I do use Sony and Fuji mirrorless and they do a crazy nice job for me concerning how lightweight they are and how powerful they are.

  52. So much great information here. Thus is the first place that made me want to go out and use my camera. Thanks looking forward to buying your course

  53. Don’t change the ISO, it’s likely to be grainy. Rather, use a tripod with a lower shutter speed.

  54. Thanks for this wonderful and very useful article. Really appreciate your effort in covering all the basic aspects for any beginner to understand and experiment with his camera.

  55. I just bought an A6000 over a rebel. Except for the zoom being on the lens and replacement lens’ being overpriced I’m glad I went Sony.

  56. Hi Improvephotography
    Thank you so much for this very useful and helpful iunformation.
    It’s so so clear and easy to understand, the penny is beging to drop.

    i have just ordered your Video’s and recived my free Ebook, all
    of which will be most help in my path to great Photography.

    Thank you again

    Peter Lord


  57. That was one of the best “how to” pieces I have read (and I have read a few!) and it has demystified the basics of “f stop” and ISO to a degree that I feel confident to take my camera off “auto” and start experimenting with some of those settings.
    Thank you!

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