The 7 Tips for Getting Tack-Sharp Photos Every Time

In Photo Basics by Jim Harmer78 Comments

Over the last year and a half, hundreds of students have taken my online beginning photography class.  By FAR, the most common problem that Dustin and I have seen as we review photos from our students is poor sharpness.

Sometimes, the photos are clearly blurry to the point that anyone would notice the problem.  But most of the time, the photos have fair sharpness, but they just aren't quite as crisp and clear as they could be.

It can be difficult for photographers to learn how to take tack sharp pictures because there is no silver bullet.  The truth is that there are at least 7 mistakes that can lead to photos that aren't sharp.  In today's lesson, we want to provide the ultimate resource for learning to take sharp photos.

With no further adieu, the 7 deadly sins of sharpness…

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7 Tips for Sharper Photos

1. Improper Focus

After looking at many many photos from beginning photographers and analyzing each one to determine what problem caused the photo to come out soft, we have determined that improper focusing technique is the number one culprit.

Usually, the problem is that photographers are not as exact in their focusing as they should be.  We often find that the photographer did not put the focus point on the subject's eye, and instead had the camera focus on the subject's shoulder, nose, forehead, etc.  This is especially common with photographer who have not yet learned how to manually move the focus point that the camera is using.  Check out this post if you need help with this.

Another common problem stems from the use of the focus and recompose method of shooting.  This method is used when the photographer wants to focus the camera on a spot where there is no focus point, and is especially common on entry-level DSLR cameras which only have 9 or 13 autofocus points.  So the photographer uses the middle focus point and aims it at the subject's eye.  Then the photographer holds down the shutter button half-way as she recomposes the photo to the proper framing for the picture, and then presses the rest of the way down.  While this is the only practical way to focus on cameras that don't have enough focus points, it can lead to problems when shooting with shallow depth-of-field if the photographer shifts the angle of the camera while recomposing, or if her finger slips on the shutter button.

For more advanced photographers, you might also like to learn how to do back button focus.

How to fix it: If you need to use the focus and recompose method because your camera doesn't have a focus point for where you want to focus, use great care not to move the camera around too much which may alter the plane of focus.  If you have enough autofocus points in your camera, moving the focus point around to match your composition is the preferred method.

2. Failing to sharpen the image

No photo is as sharp as it should be when it comes off the imaging sensor in your camera.  To compensate for this, you'll need to apply some sharpening on the computer if you shoot in RAW.  If you shoot in JPEG, then make sure the picture control/picture style set in your camera is applying some capture sharpening for you.

There are many two main types of sharpening: capture and output.  Both are necessary to produce crystal clear photos.  Capture sharpening is used to compensate for inherent optical issues in all lenses and cameras.  Capture sharpening is generally applied to a RAW photo as it is brought into Lightroom or Photoshop, and you may find that these programs are applying capture sharpening behind the scenes.

Aside from sharpening the captured image, tack sharp photos also need to be sharpened at output.  In general, the larger your final photo will be, the more sharpening you need to apply.  For example, if I'm outputting a file for a 20″x30″ print (50×76 centimeters), then I would want to apply a lot of sharpness to the photo in Photoshop.  For example, I might use these settings in Filter>Unsharp Mask: Amount 100, radius 2.3.  At the same time, if I were printing a small photo, or using a smaller photo on the web, I would use much less sharpening: Amount 50, radius 1.7.  While you want to be careful not to apply too much sharpening, a little bit of it goes a long way.

3. Camera Blur

Camera blur simply means that the camera moved while the image was being taken, resulting in a blurry photo.  The most common cause of this is when a photographer mashes down the shutter button because they are excited.  Pushing the shutter button too forcefully moves the camera and will always reduce the sharpness of the photo.

Another common cause of camera blur is when the photographer uses too low of a shutter speed, so that the natural shaking of one's hands causes blur in the photo.  No one, not even brain surgeons, can hold their hands perfectly steady.  We all shake just slightly, and that can often be enough to cause a blurry photo if the photographer's shutter speed is too low.

How to fix it: To fix camera blur, try to keep your shutter speed at 1/the focal length of the lens.  So if you're using a 100mm lens, then your shutter speed should be 1/100.  This is a general rule, and obviously only works when the subject that you're shooting is still.

Also, using lenses with image stabilization (Canon) or Vibration Reduction (Nikon) will help reduce camera blur.  This technology compensates for camera shake by moving the lens around to steady the shot.

4. Motion Blur

Motion blur is simple.  It means that the photographer used too slow of a shutter speed for the movement in a scene.  If you're shooting a sports game, you would almost always want a shutter speed around 1/1000 of a second in order to freeze the motion in the scene.  For more on this, check out this article on shutter speed.

How to fix it: Use a fast enough shutter speed to match your situation.  For general portraits, you'll want a shutter speed of at least 1/100.  For slight movement (a walking model, for example), a shutter speed of 1/320 will often be sufficient.  For fast motion like sports, 1/1000 is generally enough to freeze the motion.

 5.  Poor Lens Design

The fact is that most photographers start out learning photography on inexpensive lenses.  Obviously, it would be nice if all photographers could use expensive pro lenses that capture crystal clear images… the fact of the matter is that most photographers can't afford the pro lenses.  That's okay!  You can still capture tack sharp photos if you learn to take advantage of the lenses you already own.

How to fix it: Two quick tips for achieving sharp images from inexpensive lenses are (1) do not use the lens at either extreme of the aperture range.  So if your lens goes down to f/5.6, then consider shooting at f/7.1 when possible.  This will generally be a sharper aperture on that lens.  (2) Try not to shoot the lens at either extreme of the focal range.  So if you have a lens that goes from 18mm to 55mm, consider shooting at the middle of the focal range for better results.  Each lens is different in this way and has different sweet spots, but these general rules will often produce sharper images.

6. Too Shallow Depth-of-Field

Portrait photographers are often taught to use shallow depth-of-field to achieve a creamy blur in the background of the image.  While this is a great technique, I often find that photographers go too far.

If you use a very low aperture such as f/2.8, and you use a long lens and stand close to the subject, then your depth-of-field will be razor thin.  Often, this means that the photo will show the subject's eyes in focus, but her nose or the back of her head will be out of the plane of focus.  In general, it is advisable to increase your depth-of-field just slightly in these situations so that the entire head or body of the subject is in focus.

This is especially true when shooting engagement, wedding, or family photography.  We often find that photographers who shoot couples or groups use too shallow a depth-of-field and this results in only some of the people in the photo being in focus.

How to fix it: Always focus on the front person in the group, or for couples, focus on the closes person to the camera, and increase your aperture just slightly to give more depth of field.

7. Diopter Not Properly Adjusted

The diopter is a (very) small wheel next to the viewfinder on almost all DSLRs that allows the photographer to make minor adjustments to the focus of view that the viewfinder shows looking through the lens.  Adjusting the diopter does NOT affect the image recorded by the imaging sensor, but only the view you see when looking through the viewfinder.

The reason that adjusting the diopter is important, is that having it set properly will allow the photographer to see in the viewfinder exactly how well focused the image is.  This can go a long way in spotting problems such as improper focus while taking the photo.

How to fix it: Next time you grab your camera, look closely for a tiny wheel to the right of your viewfinder.  You may not have noticed it before,  Look through the viewfinder at something about 30 feet (9 meters) away with a long lens on.  Carefully scroll the diopter until the view through the viewfinder looks perfectly sharp for you.  This will depend on your vision and will not be the same for everyone.


About the Author

Jim Harmer

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Jim Harmer is the founder of Improve Photography, and host of the popular Improve Photography Podcast. More than a million photographers follow him on social media, and he has been listed at #35 in rankings of the most popular photographers in the world. Jim travels the world to shoot with readers of Improve Photography in his series of free photography workshops. See his portfolio here.


  1. How did you know? My biggest problem!!! and my biggest frustration! Thanks so much – I’ll report back on my new success!

  2. #7 Answered a question I’ve been curious about for awhile now. Time to get the camera and adjust my diopter!

  3. I literally just wrote to a friend, “my inability to capture sharp images is something I have to work on. One eye focused, one eye not. Ugh.” This article is extremely timely. Thank you. Off to follow you on pinterest.

  4. For #7. I tried adjusting diopter, but My eyes seems to adjust for some reason. Or maybe I didnt do it properly.

    1. Your eyes should be relaxed whenever using the viewfinder, maybe your eyes are unconsciusly trying to readjust.

    2. Another diopter adjusting trick…remove the lens completely and look through the viewfinder at a solid neutral color wall. Adjust the diopter until the framing brackets in the viewfinder are sharp. If you cannot achieve sharpness this way, you may need to get a corrective eyepiece for your viewfinder.

  5. A good article for beginners. but you should note that sharpening does not make an image sharp it just make it appear sharper by increasing contrast at the edges.

    Not all blur in bad. Sometimes camera and motion blur can be used in a positive, creative way.

    If I had submitted this article to my English teacher is would have come back with a lot of blue pencil and a failing grade.

    I suggest you obtain a copy of RightWriter ( and use it. You will be glad you did.

  6. There’s little point in griping about writing style in an article on photography. I’m sure everybody (else) got the drift.

    As for the bit that “sharpening does not make an image sharp [,] it just make[s] it appear sharper by increasing contrast at the edges” (you’ll take humble notice, I hope, of the errors in YOUR syntax), your observation is a bit disingenuous: if sharpening doesn’t work for you, all you have to do is play around a bit with contrast + clarity + sharpening, and, with a bit of pottering around, you’ll arrive at what you want.

    Personally, though, contrast, clarity, sharpening and – very rarely – +ing or -ing saturation are as far as I go. Photoshop? Waste of time. Literally. You could be out shooting instead of dicking around in front of a monitor (most of which won’t be calibrated for printing, anyway).

    1. When you mention the editing in Photoshop is a waste of time because most won’t be calibrated for printing, what does that mean?

  7. Ok small problem was experimenting with the A feature on my camera and trying to change fstop and ISO etc, and somehow when I take a picture now the shutter tries to close and i get ERR PRESS SHUTTER BUTTON AGAIN TO RELEASE, any ideas on how to fix my user error?
    thank you, Jodi

    1. Hi Jodi. Check to see if there is a “RESET SETTINGS” option in you menu. Check your manual for exact location.

  8. Great article. I realised last week while taking photos of the blue moon that I really need to adjust the diopter on my camera. Thanks for the gentle ‘nudge’ LOL.

  9. Do you know – Laughterhouse – if you know so much why are you reading articles that the rest of us find useful? I’d suggest that your points are aimed at the more pro photographers and not those of us who are new and like to have the more simpler fixes. I do actually know what you’re on about but you’re not very clear. How about you start your own website where you can get your point across and leave the clear simple stuff that’s actually useful to these guys?

  10. Thank you so much for this post. I have recently dwelt on this topic and I am glad to see that I am on the right track improving my images. I definitely found value in the posted guidelines.

  11. Excellent article! some really helpful tips there.
    I’m guilty of the focus and recompose method…started really having problems with it when I was using my 50mm with a really shallow depth of field to do some portraits. Had to chuck half of my shots because of OOF.
    Wish I’d read this article before hand!

  12. Can I be presumptuous and add… use a tripod and remote release as much as possible? Pro’s usually use a tripod or monopod if they can…

  13. Thanks for this article, as Im guilty as charged.
    Im going to apply these methods.

  14. Sharpening should generally be the last ting applied to a photo in an editing workflow.
    In-camera sharpening is often worse that doing it manually in PS.
    Doing most of the sharpening in-camera or in RAW CAN be bad when you also intend to do it at output as it can lead to oversharpening in the final photo.

  15. Brian Whitby, being an English teacher myself, if you had submitted to me what you just wrote, it would have come back with a lot of red on it.

  16. So good, guys – such a simple yet effective tutorial. I just did a baby shoot where photos came out soft and it was such a humbling experience because I feel like it’s a mistake I should not be making any more. Anyway I had to go back to basics and re-examine what I was doing wrong and this video helped err, zoom in, on the problem areas

  17. @49dc19c87f9cd688b1f91594641211a8:disqus

    I suggest you get over it. This article is not intended for your English teacher. It’s simply intended for helpful tips.

  18. Thanks! This inspired me to work harder on focusing my pics! Bit by bit, I’m getting better at capturing the moments. 🙂

  19. I actually never thought about how the lenses themselves can be the cause of blurry images (well unless they are dirty!) Good post, I need to go practice now!

    Steve @

  20. I love the irony in your comment.
    Thanks for the laugh.

    And a glowing endorsement of right-writer! LOL

  21. I am a beginner in the field of dslr camera but however photography is my hobby. I love taking pictures for landscape and creativity photos for my matchmoving which is part of animation . I want to purchase the dslr camera and i want to know which one will be the best for me . Is it Nikon D7000 or Sony a77 and this will be my first dslr camera so help me to choose the best .

  22. A great article- One thing I find is too slow a shutter speed often leads to motion blur (which a lot of people forget about)- I find the Auto ISO feature really useful for this, as it allows me to set a minimum shutter speed- thanks for sharing! 🙂

  23. I still call myself a beginner but after seeing your video and hearing you had to say about too narrow of DOF it made me think now am I a beginner or am I just stepping into intermediate I know this much

    I am not there yet in the intermediate area I don’t think but I do now seem to add to much DOF or my DOF is in my CC I get is a tad but just a tad too much I guess now I have to teach myself to try a little higher f/stop number So thank you for that information.

    frustrating going from not enough to to much 🙂

  24. I really enjoyed watching this video! Thanks so much for the great ideas. My problem is that I feel that sometimes things are to sharp in a photo and I prefer the softer look so I actually soften it in PS. Is that wrong? Should all pictures be crisp sharp? I’m not real sure. Since I’m a beginner, I may be making a mistake to actually take out the sharpness, not sure.

  25. It is really interesting to read all the tips. But could you pleas use Sony “terminology” as well (not only Canon and Nikon)? Thanks

  26. Very nice. I learned a couple things today. Thanks. For example, I did not know that you needed to sharpen your RAW photos. Thanks again.

  27. When you say basic digital carmea I am assuming its a top and shoot.a top and shoot does a pre-flash any to lower red eye or to measuring device ( for automatic settings)to use an open-air flash you need to set the carmea’s flash in blue-collar mode such that it fires only onceand set the open-air flash to optical slave mode so that it sees a flash go and fires at the same time.most DSLR’s have a sync speed of 1/250 i.e. shutter speed has to be slower than 1/250th of a secondbut the top and shoot carmea’s have a leaf shutter and are able to sync quicker than that.what you need to do is find that blue-collar flash mode 0Was this answer helpful?

  28. Thank you both so much I am excited to use your tips for sharper photos. Thank you really I learned quite a few new things. Especially about sharpening regarding Jpeg and Raw images. I do sharpen my photos but didn’t know Raw images needed sharpening even more. Thats great information. Also the Diopter value that can help to compensate for a small prescription was really helpful too. Looking forward to tomorrow to improve my pics with your tips. 🙂

  29. Good info… thanks.

    (Though is it wrong to point out the irony in a video on making sharp photos and your video is focus on the wall behind you! 😉

  30. This video was VERY helpful! I had no idea I had to sharpen all my RAW images. Thank you! I am so grateful that you guys share your knowledge with the photography community. Love you guys!!!!!!!!

  31. Thanks for the great info. I would like to add a “trick” my college Photo I prof taught me — turn your camera upside down (in lieu of a tripod) and hold the bottom (now the top) of the camera against your forehead and don’t forget to hold your breath.

  32. Sadly, I had no clue about sharpening after shooting until a few years ago. I took photography in school back when film was still being used, so I had not taken digital photography courses. Is was only after learning about it in a photography forum that I started tinkering with it. It really does much a big difference. Thanks for sharing your tips with those who need some tips.

  33. Hi Jim,

    I’m in Lethbridge, AB, where we often have wind (often 35+ mph). Any recommendations for getting sharp images with a mid-range tripod/ballhead combo? I’ve got a D3100 right now with kit 18-55 and cheap Sigma 70-300 (which isn’t very sharp to start with). One of the problems I find is the strap, which isn’t easily removable, is flapping like a flag – even if I try to tie it off. I can’t afford a better tripod/ballhead right now. I’d like to just avoid shooting in the wind – but we often get gorgeous sunsets when it’s windy.

  34. Hi Dwayne, not sure if you have solved your problem yet but here is an idea. Your tripod may have a small hook at the bottom of the centre column. Hang your camera bag off it and that will stabilise your camera somewhat.

  35. TY – You guys were great .. First time I saw one of your videos and I enjoyed it a lot.. Even learned a new trick ..Have a great day
    Jodi Foster

  36. Thanks for advice kept have problems with sharpness now I understand some areas that may have been causing my focusing. Great job!

  37. In watching this video, it seems that the wall behind is in focus, but your faces are not in focus.

  38. I shoot with a Nikon D3100 50-200 lens. I usually do outdoor portraits and have been setting my aperture at f/4.5, which is the lowest stop. I’ve been finding that when I set my single point focus on the subject’s eye, my pictures tend to come out with the sharp focus off to the left of my subject. I’m seeing that you say to increase my aperture, which I will definitely try along with the other tips mentioned. Any other thoughts for this problem? Thanks!

  39. Diopter adjustment –
    1. Use live view and focus on object – zoom in on object and ensure sharp focus.
    2. Now, look through view finder and turn wheel to bring into focus for your eye

    If you don’t do 1 – you don’t know if your camera is in focus and you’re adjusting the picture to make it appear to be in focus .

  40. First wedding shoot guided by you and smashed it, thank you so much, your site has given me so much new information and the way you explain everything helped me understand my camera even more, I made a few BW shots followed by colour I’m meeting with the bride and groom for lunch and were going to look together I’m so proud of this shoot can’t explain my excitement but this would have not be possible if it weren’t for you I h ave another wedding shoot end of October I’m lucky both weddings are in turkey so catching the sun sets aswell cheers for the help I will continue with your site I find it fasinating
    Regards gra

  41. Thank you for this! My eyes are pretty bad, and I wasn’t sure if the picture in the viewfinder was blurry because of the setting, or my eyes… This is one of the only site that mentioned diopter adjustment. I didn’t even know it existed. I checked it, and it was probably at the blurriest setting to my eyes! Hope my pictures will be better. 🙂

  42. Very helpful. I’ve done all these things and appreciate the reminder. Still learning after many years of rookie mistakes. I wonder what was going through your head when you realized a train was interrupting your video – probably fuel for another helpful hint session on videos:) My photographs thank you!

    1. Thank you for the tips! Being a rookie, I was becoming frustrated with why my photos were never as sharp as others. I was putting more importance on getting the iso and shutter speed correct. Going from cellphone photography to using a D5000, it has been a real challenge. Thank you again!

  43. Can I please ask a question about #3 and focal length.
    I have an OMD EM1 which is a 4/3 system.

    For example, the 12-40 mm lens is a 24-80 mm equivalent in 35mm terms.
    So, for example, should I try to keep the shutter speed above 1/40 (the lens) or 1/80 (the 35mm equivalent) if I’m taking a 40mm focal length shot?


  44. Thank you so much for the information. I was completely in-vary of Dioptre key..indeed I had seen it near the view finder. However, didn’t knew for what that wheel was there for!…Being a myopic I use to get blur…now I will go home and fix that. Thanks again!

  45. Very interesting, I never knew that tip about the focal extremes of the lens such as shooting at a lower focal length than the maximum or staying away from lowest OR highest aperture. I in fact assumed that the higher your aperture (as in number, not opening) the sharper your shots would get (well, certainly the sharper distant objects would become).

    I bought a D7200 recently and took it on a trip to Iceland and while I’m mostly hugely impressed with the shots that were taken, I didn’t see any that’s blew me away as regards clarity and sharpness for the 24 unbelievable megapixels you get. I’m partially blaming the stock 18 to 105mm lens that’s comes with it, but maybe this tip above will prove super helpful.

    Anyway, I’ve learned something really key today so thanks!

  46. Raw creates softer images? You need to do the sharpening in post? I had no idea! This was such a helpful article. Not to mention you guys are so laid back and it’s nice to see great photographers who aren’t arrogant and condescending. Thanks so much!

  47. Not knowing anything when I started to shoot digital back in 2009, after about 20 year absence from photography, I bought a Canon 50d and 18-200 zoom. Some time after I purchased 10-22 and 100-400 zooms. Still my photos were not that sharp, tripod, fast shutter, proper fstop and iso. Upgraded to a full frame and Canon L lenses in late 2012, what a difference, now 14 by 21 photos are tack sharp. This is my story, invest in good glass.
    Join a photo club this may help. I did.

  48. Thanks for this article . I am 4 years too late reading it. Nevertheless I find it addresses many of the issues I face. very informative indeed. I shoot video on my DSLR as well as still pics and had some issues getting sharp focus especially at shallow depth of field> I will apply these rules from now on. And the Diopter thing was an eye opener. Cheers

  49. Great tips, thanks for such a comprehensive post. I’ve started using Canon DSLR just over a year ago and will apply them when taking photos of our travels. It’s true about not being able to afford a professional lens, they are so expensive so I am just trying to do my best with what I have 🙂

    If you have any tips for using 50mm lens, that would be great. I love using the lens, but sometimes find my photos not clear enough even when I shoot up close. The tripod always helps, but I don’t want to carry it around with me all the time 🙂

  50. I’m so glad to find these tips!

    I own an AF-S NIKKOR 28-300mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR and D610, mostly shoot portrait in a simple studio (one remote speed light, reflector, umbrella and a backdrop). I’ve been shooting with this equipment for almost 2 years and about 5500 photos. Each portrait was about 35 shots.

    Here are my problems: at least 25% of each shoot was not sharp, last week was the worst, more than 60% came out unsharp. Can you suggest how to fix? I usually shoot at 1/200 ~ 1/160, F/5.6, ISO 320, Exposure Compensation +5 (maximum).

  51. These are my beginner settings: iso- auto, aperature f/8 using aperture priorty mode camera will select shutter speed. Next I set exposure compensation to -0.3. I also use dynamic focus setting in menu. And finally I use back button focusing. Just go in your menu to set it up an bang, nice tack sharp photos. DiSCLAIMER- I am just learning!

  52. Thank You for the Post. I have to work on each point you explained. Always wondered what is missing in my snaps. This is it.

  53. I am new to this page- not sure if its the right feed I should be on to ask for photography tips and questions but here it is:

    Recently I noticed when I shoot landscape my lens is not capturing sharp images but when I shoot portrait they are, is this a lens issue or camera issue? I am not sure why all of a sudden it did this but it is killing me!! It never did it before- the only way to retrieve sharp images is when I use the back button for landscape images. 🙁 Please help

  54. My pictures appear sharp on the computer however when I print them to either the 4X6 or 5×7 size they are blurry. What can I do to fix this? I’m newer to photography and Lightroom.

  55. Great article. I have a 5D Mark III and most often use the Sigma Art 35mm. My images are never as sharp as I’d like. I edit in Lightroom and have honestly never sharpened my images, and I shoot in raw! I am a self taught photographer, learning daily. Thank you for the much needed advice!

  56. Some good insight here, thanks! Will take 10 minutes to learn about achieving tack-sharpness, it has been a struggle on a nikon d70.

    Ps. Hate to be a grammer nazi. The correct phrase is “without further ado (uh-doo)” and its purpose is to emphasise getting back on track from an interruption or distracting mess and chaos. Since you start the article on point, there wouldn’t be a need for such phrase where if was used, as its not an flexible introductory phrase, contrary to common (mis)usage!

  57. D700*

    Hoping to achieve raw sherpness to minimise the need for heavy post processing

  58. The article is very informative for amateur photographers like me to understand how to handle a dslr.The content is easily understandable as it’s written in a very simple manner.

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