aurora 2

How to Photograph the Aurora Borealis (Made Easy!)

aurora 2The Aurora Borealis (commonly known as the Northern Lights) are streaks of light dancing across the sky. They are breathtaking and look so hard to photograph! Looking at photos of the Aurora Borealis, you might think: “The photographer must have a really awesome camera to take those photos, and must live in a northern cold climate, and stand outside in knee deep snow freezing their fingers… I wish I could do that.” But that simply isn’t true, and you can do that. The Aurora is not as easy to photograph as a landscape, but anyone can do it. Here’s how, in a simple, easy to follow, non-technical article.

The truth is almost any DSLR can capture the Aurora Borealis. The Aurora is also visible year round, and you don’t have to live in Alaska to see the beautiful Northern Lights. True, you probably won’t see them if you live in Arizona or Texas, but you will see them in some of the northern United States, all of Canada, and of course Alaska.

What equipment do you need?

    • A DSLR camera, with a lens capable of a wide aperture (it does not have to be an expensive one). The trusty old nifty fifty 1.8 will do the job for around $150.00, and most photographers already have this lens on hand. I used my 50mm f/1.8 for the photos in this article. A wider angle lens will always be the better choice if you have one.


    • A fully charged battery


    • A tripod


    • A shutter release cable or wireless trigger. If you don’t have one, the timer built into the camera will work. Remember: a shutter release cable will give you more control than a timer and enable you to keep the shutter open as long as you want to. It is essential to use some sort of device to control the shutter to reduce vibration.


    • Don’t forget a flashlight, since you will be walking and working in the dark.


aurora 4The photos in this article were shot in central Alberta, Canada, in July. No snow or freezing fingers involved! There are lots of sites that tell you when the Aurora Borealis will be out. (I use Aurora Watch – this site sends an email telling me how strong the Aurora will be and what time it will be the strongest.) Then I get out of town! You will get a much better photo if you are a few miles away from the city lights; ambient light is not an asset here. Now that you have your tools and before you go out in the dark, you will want to set your camera, attach it to the tripod, and attach the cable or wireless trigger. The less fumbling you do in the dark the better.

aurora 5Now turn that dial to M! Sorry – you have to shoot manual for this. Go ahead – it’s not that scary! First set your shutter speed… to infinity and beyond! Or bulb… (That’s just not as exciting to say is it?) Bulb, infinity or that squiggly little ∞ symbol is what you are looking for. The first few times I tried to capture the Aurora I was severely disappointed. Why? Yes, I had caught them and I was excited about that, but they were out of focus! I was out in a field, in complete darkness… The question I asked myself was “How am I supposed to focus on what I can’t see?”

I looked online and found a lot of really technical articles that I didn’t totally understand and that just didn’t work for me. So instead, I came up with this idea and it works! If the moon is out, focus on that. If that’s not working, find a far-away house or a light off in the distance (communication towers work great) and focus on that. (This works for all night photography and it’s simple and easy.) I also use back button focus, but any method will work and I recommend you use the method you are comfortable with.

This is where things get a little more complicated and this is where the trial and error happens. Each camera will react to low light photography in a different way. I used a Nikon D7100 for these photos. It does well with high ISO and I could have gone higher, but didn’t. Why? You want to keep the ISO as low as possible. This will give you a photo with less of that “grainy look” (better known as a noisy photo). However, there is one other thing to consider: the Earth is a moving object. Those twinkling stars you see? Your camera sees them differently. Leave the shutter open for too long and you will have star trails. Our focus is the Aurora, so try and avoid star trails here. This means you’ll need a higher ISO and a faster shutter speed.

A shot of the Aurora with no star trails.

A shot of the Aurora with no star trails.

Next set your aperture. Again you will have to experiment. The moon is a factor here: is it a full moon or a quarter moon? This will determine what your aperture should be. If it’s a full moon, close your aperture a bit. If it’s a quarter moon you may want to open it a bit. I normally start at about f/3 and adjust according to the available light in the environment. Below is a simple chart to help you get started.

The following table offers some very rough estimates to start out:

f/ratio 400 ISO 800 ISO 1600 ISO
15 sec
07 sec
04 sec
30 sec
15 sec
07 sec
60 sec
30 sec
15 sec


auroraLast but not least, how long do you keep the shutter open? Once again, each camera is going to react differently. Let me give you a very non-technical example. I shoot Nikon. When I used the D90 I opened the shutter, counted to 10, and released it. Not very technical… but it worked! That was the perfect amount of time for that camera. When I used the D7100 and counted to 10, the photo was over-exposed. Counting to 7 (approximately three seconds) was about right for the D7100. I used the same lens both times.

So now you have the tools and knowledge needed to go get some awesome shots of the beautiful Northern Lights. Plan to go out at least a few times so you can experiment with different settings on your camera as well as different lighting situations in the environment around you. You can capture some really incredible things with some patience and practice!


  1. Rg

    Can you explain “Bulb” a little more. I was told to use this once and don’t understand how to. Thanks

    1. Teresa

      Bulb means that the shutter stays open for as long as you can hold down the shutter button. I think some cameras, the bulb just stays open for 30 min but I could be completely wrong. Basically though you are in complete control how long the shutter stays open by how long you can keep your finger on the shutter release button. Hope this helps. If I am worn with any info, please someone feel free to correct. :)

      1. Ben Longden

        The term “bulb” comes from the days of glass plate cameras, when the shutter mechanism was activated by a pneumatic hose connected to the camera and activated by a rubber “bulb”, much like a blower lens cleaning brush.

        In later years, after the shutters were able to operate at predetermined speeds the “Bulb” option was used for the photographer to keep the shutter open as long as wanted.

        You simply had to keep the bulb squeezed.

        On modern DSLR cameras, you can manually set shutter speeds to 30 seconds. if you want longer, you have to use the “bulb” setting.

        The worst way to do this is use your finger on the shutter button. The right way is to connect a remote shutter release to the camera.

        Some of the electro mechanical cameras of the 70s and 80s had a screw thread in the shutter button. This was for a cable driven remote to be used.

        The DSLRs of today require an electronic connection…

  2. Bianca


    – it’s normal that it looks like light clouds or like that , for the naked eye .
    The beautiful and fantastic colors comes when you take a photo because ours eyes can’t catch the colors like the camera can

    1. William

      @ Bianca

      I think you have it mixed up Bianca. Our eyes are very dynamic and we see way more than the camera can. Have you ever taken a photo of a sunrise/sunset and the colors just didn’t look like what you seen?

  3. Barbara

    First, I only have a film camera which allows me to experiment with the F stops etc. Should I get a digital?

    Second,when you speak “the bulb” can you do that with a digital camera?

    1. Kristen

      You can see them in many northern states and yes there’s a “bulb” setting on digital cameras, too

      I would get a digital so that you can experiment less expensively…I hardly ever use my film camera anymore…which probably isn’t good but I’m used to digital now. :)

    2. Sherry

      The aurora can be seen all across Canada and some of the US states south of Canada as well. I’m in Central Alberta and spent my weekend shooting them. Got some great shots!

  4. Helen Jenkins

    Thank you so much for the great information on Youtube and your web site! I am a BEGINNER photographer armed with a Nikon D7100 (I know,overkill). But I am leaving on a trip to Alaska next week and I desperately want to shoot the AB. I am terrified! I may never get another chance like this and I don’t want to mess it up.
    I have been searching youtube for days looking for information that I could understand. You have the best site BY FAR!
    I am going to print your chart and take it with me. I am also going to buy your e-books on amazon today.
    Is there anything else I should do with my D7100. Any special filters? I have an 18-200 and a 55-300 lens. Which should I use?
    Please Help Me!

  5. Chak Wong

    “…the Earth is a moving object.”

    What’s the longest exposure for stationary stars? 10 seconds?

  6. Stu Marks

    I entered “photographing aurora borealis” into Google and this page came up as natural result #3 on page 1. Great SEO, Jim. Just a heads up.

    We are supposed to have a unique opportunity to see some northern lights tonight from way down here in Longview Washington due to that sun flare.

    Thx, Jim.

  7. Lisa

    Bianca is correct about the camera seeing more than the human eye when viewing the aurora borealis at night…here’s the reason why:

    “I’ve photographed fantastic Northern Lights displays, and I’ve been lucky enough to observe a wide range of colors, including greens, purples, yellows, oranges, reds, magentas and blues. But I never really know what the true color of the aurora is unless I’m looking at my camera’s LCD viewfinder screen, or more importantly, viewing the images on my computer. Why?
    The simple answer is because human eyes can’t see the relatively “faint” colors of the aurora at night. Human eyes have cones and rods — the cones work during the day and the rods work at night.
    On the website Astropix, Jerry Lodriguss describes it this way: “Humans use two different kinds of cells in their eyes to sense light. Cone cells, concentrated in the fovea in the central area of vision, are high resolution and detect color in bright light.
    These are the main cells we use for vision in the daytime. Rod cells, concentrated in the periphery around the outside of the fovea, can detect much fainter light at night, but only see in black and white and shades of gray. [Aurora] only appear to us in shades of gray because the light is too faint to be sensed by our color-detecting cone cells.”
    Thus, the human eye primarily views the Northern Lights in faint colors and shades of gray and white. DSLR camera sensors don’t have that limitation. Couple that fact with the long exposure times and high ISO settings of modern cameras and it becomes clear that the camera sensor has a much higher dynamic range of vision in the dark than people do.” (From an article by photographer Mike Taylor for
    How Cameras Reveal the Northern Lights’ True Colors (Op-Ed)
    Mike Taylor, Taylor Photography
    Date: 22 November 2013 Time: 05:20 PM ET

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